Jan Peter Apel

The Mystery of Flying

The problem of finding the solution to the mystery of flying is the same as that of finding the riddle of the course of the sun above our heads. In both cases the same mistake is made: we take us as the point of reference that would provide the right view of these natural processes, although these observed things do not move, but we do:
instead of the dormant sun we turn with the earth,
instead of the unmoved air, which only passes us as a wind blast, we move with the airplane, which also corresponds to the view into the wind tunnel. A ladybird, sitting on a wing, would say, "the air particles moves over me". But they do not as well as the sun, which does not move over us too.

By this cardinal error, namely to use relative views, which are always repeated anew in physics, the view arose that the air passed wings as a real stream. These "flow theories" are created with the Bernoulli or Coanda effect, although the air does not flow at all. The result: all theories, which are based on a "flow" on the airplane wing, are basically and completely wrong! A physical theory is either completely correct or completely false. A little bit wrong is just impossible as a little pregnant.
Each flying object must move in and against the air by means of the use of energy and at the same time use the air to generate a buoyancy force. This happened by that, that the wings of all types of flying objects accelerates air downwards, so that the downwardly pushed air masses produce reaction forces upwards, which are the kinetic buoyancy forces. For physics of flying, the surrounding air is the natural coordinate system, which is the only one correct and therefore permissible coordinate system.

This is the only one correct theory which also leads to direct answers for all questions relating to flying, such as the question of why there are very large vortices behind airplanes: they are the unavoidable consequence of the pressed down air masses by planes.

According to the rules of physics, which are mostly not taught, physical theories are never proved by mathematical success, but only by their ability to answer all questions without exception. Mathematics is not the supervisor of physics, but rather a completely different kind of science!

Apart from this physical solution to the problem of flying, There are a lot of technically advantageous partial theories out of other coordinate systems, but they have nothing to do with the physically truth of flying:

Flying objects heavier than air fly by downward accelerating air masses.
This is the basic principle of flying,
whether steadily with the wings slightly inclined with an angle of attack
or the same wings circularly like on helicopters
or swinging wings back and forth with bigger angle of attack.