Jan Peter Apel

Confusion in physics

Flying: by Bernoulli or Newton?

This is currently the question that reveals at least that the doubts about the Bernoulli's theory have increased. The truth is, that flying objects fly by Newton's laws. The barriers, that are placed against the recognition of the theory by Newton, are mostly surreal. A curiously argument against Newton's theory is presented here representative for many other illogical, which consist of the incalculable complexity of the Bernoulli Theory and its intermingle with math.

It is believed that drag arise by Newtonian physics and lift according to the Bernoulli effect. Both are linked without any physical basis in a mathematical factor. This factor is drag to lift, D/L, in Germany Cw / Ca in the image of lift in the polar curve.
But physically, the emergence of the air force in the horizontal, the drag, has nothing to do with the air force in the vertical direction, the lift. If the lift arise by Bernoulli, so the two air forces would also be quite different and physically no longer be compared.
But even if the lift and the drag arise by Newton's laws, so they are similar, they arise still each for itself in its own action independently of the other. The value of the factor D/L is 0.1, 10% force by Newton and 90% allegedly by Bernolli. 
This factor is physically not admissible, but nevertheless makes sense in technology. It leads for example to calculating the slide angle of a plane. Technology does not care about physics, what is even allowed, because it is no physics, but rather seeks practical success. And there the end justifies the means. With the question "Why does an airplane fly?" has the factor D/L nothing to do.

Out of this unphysical mathematical formulation D/L is still physically interpreted, that flying by Newton would not be possible because Newton's proportion is too small, one-tenth of what is needed. A performing mental distinction between horizontal and vertical is not made here. That a Newtonian air force in the vertical direction could replace the Bernoullieffect is unthinkable for Bernoulli aerodynamics. They are characterized with Bernoulli air force and
can not imagine a Newton force in the vertical direction. They are mentally blockt by wrong education.  

That one says drag to horizontal air force and lift for vertical forces is nothing more than an only practical naming. Makes a plane a vertical dive, so the drag became to lift. It limits only a little the rate of fall, but at a parachute very much more. For them is drag lift in a high as the jumper weighs. The rate of fall is so small, that parachuts  even climbs in a hillside or thermal updraft are possible. And that even drag generates lift, was already demonstrated in the chapter "How insects fly".

After the law of causality also air forces may have only one single causation. And this cause is clear: forces caused by Newton's third law. Only! There are no single exception. Air forces are generated principally by the fact, that a body, moving through the air, accelerating air mass to the front and the side and sucks it from behind. All this leads to an acceleration of the air mass in the direction of movement of the body and, caused be the wing as inclined plates, vertically down. The so carried air is in sum a turbulent airflow, flowing behind the body to the body and sinking down. From the perspective of a following body it is called "slipstream". It is an actual air flow forward in the direction to the moving forward body, in truth a tailwind. On train platforms it bumps lightweight items like even stroller by quickly moving trains.

Air forces are reaction forces from the air to a body,
because the body pushes air away and sucking back.
For the mutual collisions of body and air particles only Newton's laws are valid.

Wings are so constructed that they must put away horizontal few air masses to economically "get through", but much in the vertically, so that it creates an air force as lift. Horizontal a wing moves like a cardboard plate, lengthways through the air with little resistance, vertically their surfaces moves crossways through the air as an inclined plane, to generate a lot of drag as lift. The genesis of air forces are the same in both directions: the air is pushed away, so that they answers with their recoil force.
In the caused real air movements by a wing also Bernoulli processes take place. But these are secondary and thus no external forces that may act to the flying object.

An airplane wing fly through one point in the air in usually 0.1 seconds, so it can bump only at that time located air partikles downward. Since the bumping and sucking air particles can spread up and down only with the speed of sound, the direct effect on the air is zero on the nose of the wing and 33 meters at the end of the wing, an average about 16 meters up and down. For everything, what results after, the wing is gone.

It is method, that Bernoulli theory is defended with interpretations of individual observations such a ratio of air forces and as another example, how find together two air partikles, which are separated by the nose of the wing. All these are secondary phenomena, so ineffective. The cause of flying can be found only at the begin of the course of event and not back in later sequelae and certainly not in mathematical formulations, for which details whatsoever.

That the Bernoulli theory is wrong, is due to the interchanging of running wind with flow, a major mistake. Their inconsistency is however already given without any physical explanation, only by this, that the problem Bernoulli or Newton exist! Only the Newtonian Theory of Flight can answer all the outstanding issues of the Bernoulli, is therefore physically correct. What technology thinks is worthless. 

A physically correct theory is completely free of problems!