Jan Peter Apel
Confusion in physics
Flying: by Bernoulli or Newton?
is currently the question that reveals at least that the doubts about
the Bernoulli's theory have increased. The truth is, that flying
objects fly by Newton's laws. The barriers, that are placed against the
recognition of the theory by Newton, are mostly surreal. A curiously
argument against Newton's theory is presented here representative for
many other illogical, which consist of the incalculable complexity of
the Bernoulli Theory and its intermingle with math.
believed that drag arise by Newtonian physics and lift according
to the Bernoulli effect. Both are linked without any physical basis in
a mathematical factor. This factor is drag to lift, D/L, in Germany Cw / Ca in the image of lift in the polar curve.
physically, the emergence of the air force in the horizontal, the drag, has nothing to do with the air force in the vertical
direction, the lift. If the lift arise by Bernoulli, so the two air
forces would also be quite different and physically no longer be
even if the lift and the drag arise by
Newton's laws, so they are similar, they arise still each for itself in
its own action independently of the other. The value of the factor D/L is
0.1, 10% force by Newton and 90% allegedly by Bernolli. This
factor is physically
not admissible, but nevertheless makes sense in technology. It
leads for example to calculating the slide angle of a plane.
Technology does not
care about physics, what is even allowed, because it is no physics,
but rather seeks practical success. And there the end justifies the
means. With the question "Why does an airplane fly?" has the factor D/L
nothing to do.
Out of this unphysical mathematical formulation
D/L is still physically interpreted, that flying by Newton would not be
possible because Newton's proportion is too small, one-tenth of what is
needed. A performing mental distinction between horizontal and vertical
is not made here. That a Newtonian air force in the vertical direction
could replace the Bernoullieffect is unthinkable for Bernoulli
aerodynamics. They are characterized with Bernoulli air
force and can not imagine a Newton force in the vertical direction. They are mentally blockt by wrong education.
one says drag to horizontal air force and lift for vertical
forces is nothing more than an only practical naming. Makes a plane a
vertical dive, so the drag became to lift. It limits only a
the rate of fall, but at a parachute very much more. For them
is drag lift in a high as the jumper weighs. The rate of
so small, that parachuts even climbs in a hillside or thermal updraft are
possible. And that even drag generates lift, was already
demonstrated in the chapter "How insects fly".
the law of
causality also air forces may have only one single causation. And this
is clear: forces caused by Newton's third law. Only! There are no
single exception. Air forces are generated principally by the fact,
that a body, moving through the air, accelerating air mass to the front
and the side and sucks it from behind. All this leads to an
acceleration of the air mass in the direction of movement of the body
and, caused be the wing as inclined plates, vertically down.
The so carried air is in sum a turbulent airflow, flowing behind the
body to the body and sinking down. From the perspective of a following
body it is called
"slipstream". It is an actual air flow forward in the direction to
the moving forward body, in truth a tailwind. On train platforms it
bumps lightweight items like even stroller by quickly moving trains.
Air forces are reaction forces from the air to a body,
because the body pushes air away and sucking back.
For the mutual collisions of body and air particles only Newton's laws are valid.
are so constructed that they must put away horizontal few air masses to
economically "get through", but much in the vertically, so that it
creates an air force as lift. Horizontal a wing moves like a cardboard
plate, lengthways through the air with little resistance, vertically
their surfaces moves crossways through the air as an inclined plane, to
generate a lot of drag as lift. The genesis of air forces are the same in both directions: the
air is pushed away, so that they answers with their recoil force.
the caused real air movements by a wing also Bernoulli processes take
place. But these are secondary and thus no external forces that may act to the flying object.
An airplane wing fly through one point in
the air in usually 0.1 seconds, so it can bump only at that time
located air partikles downward. Since the bumping and sucking air
particles can spread up and down only with the speed of sound, the
direct effect on the air is zero on the nose of the wing and 33 meters
at the end of the wing, an average about 16 meters up and down. For
everything, what results after, the wing is gone.
It is method,
that Bernoulli theory is defended with interpretations of individual
observations such a ratio of air forces and as another example, how
find together two air partikles, which are separated by the nose of the
wing. All these are secondary phenomena, so ineffective. The cause of
flying can be found only at the begin of the course of event and not
back in later sequelae and certainly not in mathematical formulations,
for which details whatsoever.
That the Bernoulli theory is
wrong, is due to the interchanging of running wind with flow, a major mistake.
Their inconsistency is however already given without any physical
explanation, only by this, that the problem Bernoulli or Newton exist! Only the Newtonian Theory of Flight can answer all the
outstanding issues of the Bernoulli, is therefore physically correct. What technology thinks is worthless. .
A physically correct theory is completely free of problems!